This article highlights the potential negative effect of the current combat environment on bone health of young military men and women who may be at risk for stress fractures and future bone disease because of alterations primarily in diet and physical activity level during deployment. A combination of physiologic biomarkers, including bone turnover and bone mineral density, and nutrition and exercise surveys can provide meaningful data on potential health risks related to deployment. Soldiers participating in an investigation into bone health before and after deployment did not have decreased bone density but the study did raise awareness about an issue that might otherwise go unnoticed because preventive care is typically focused on older adults. Several risk factors may be modifiable and nurses have the necessary skills for counseling and monitoring behaviors that can minimize disabling musculoskeletal injuries that affect quality of life for the individual and unit readiness for the commander. © 2010.