T cell phenotypes involved in the immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) have not been fully elucidated in humans. We evaluated differences in T cell phenotypes between CT-infected women and CT-seronegative controls and investigated changes in T cell phenotype distributions after CT treatment and their association with reinfection. We found a higher expression of T cell activation markers (CD38+HLA-DR+), T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-associated effector phenotypes (CXCR3+CCR5+ and CCR4+, respectively), and T cell homing marker (CCR7) for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CT-infected women. At follow-up after treatment of infected women, there were a lower proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing these markers. These findings suggest a dynamic interplay of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CT infection, and once the infection is treated, these cell markers return to basal expression levels. In women without reinfection, a significantly higher proportion of CD8+ T cells co-expressing CXCR3 with CCR5 or CCR4 at follow-up was detected compared to women with reinfection, suggesting they might play some role in adaptive immunity. Our study elucidated changes in T cell phenotypes during CT infection and after treatment, broadening our understanding of adaptive immune mechanisms in human CT infections.