Cancer of the prostate is the leading cancer among American men, yet few risk factors are known. Anthropometry may help uncover potential risk factors for prostate cancer, since fat distribution, skeletal structure, and musculature may differ between men with this hormonally linked cancer and those without it. A case-control study was undertaken to determine whether anthropometric differences exist between prostate cancer cases and controls and whether such differences are associated with specific hormonal profiles. The study accrued 315 men stratified for race, age, and case/control status. Weight, height (sitting/standing), skinfold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac, thigh), circumferences (midarm, waist, hip, thigh), breadths (elbow, biacromial, biiliac), hormonal levels (total and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), bone density, and body composition were measured. Measures of upper body robustness [i.e., biacromial breadth-to-height ratio (p = 0.02) and biacromial (p = 0.05) and bideltoid (p = 0.04) breadths] were greater among controls. Strong negative associations were found uniformly between sex hormone-binding globulin levels and measures of body adiposity and musculature. Data show that prostate cancer cases exhibit a propensity toward a slight upper body skeleton, which may in itself serve as a risk factor or provide a benchmark of past nutritional and/or hormonal status and help elucidate the etiology of this disease.