We discuss the mechanical properties and wear characteristics of sol-gel CaTiO3 nanocrystalline ceramic coatings on titanium substrates. The structure and surface morphology of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical profilometry, and atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties of CaTiO3 coatings were characterized by using nanoindentation, scratch- and microwear-tests. The effect of titanium nitride intermediate layer on the improvement of the coating properties has been investigated. The best CaTiO3 coatings with a TiN intermediate layer demonstrated the bonding strength up to 70 MPa, stability and low linear wear rate (∼ 1 μm per million cycles) during ball-on-disc reciprocal wear tests in micromotion (50-500 μm amplitude) with Ti6Al4V-alloy static partner at contact pressures up to 500 MPa in both dry and simulated body fluid environments. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.