Purpose: We reported on the results of a sequential cohort study comparing office based saturation prostate biopsy to traditional 10-core sampling as an initial biopsy. Materials and Methods: Based on improved cancer detection of office based saturation prostate biopsy repeat biopsy, we adopted the technique as an initial biopsy strategy to improve cancer detection. Two surgeons performed 24-core saturation prostate biopsies in 139 patients undergoing initial biopsy under periprostatic local anesthesia. Indication for biopsy was an increased PSA of 2.5 ng/dl or greater in all patients. Results were compared to those of 87 patients who had previously undergone 10-core initial biopsies. Results: Cancer was detected in 62 of 139 patients (44.6%) who underwent saturation biopsy and in 45 of 87 patients (51.7%) who underwent 10-core biopsy (p >0.9). Breakdown by PSA level failed to show benefit to the saturation technique for any degree PSA increase. Men with PSA 2.5 to 9.9 ng/dl were found to have cancer in 53 of 122 (43.4%) saturation biopsies and 26 of 58 (44.8%) 10-core biopsies. Complications included 3 cases of prostatitis in each group. Rectal bleeding was troublesome enough to require evaluation only in 3 men in the saturation group and 1 in the 10-core group. Conclusions: Although saturation prostate biopsy improves cancer detection in men with suspicion of cancer following a negative biopsy, it does not appear to offer benefit as an initial biopsy technique. These findings suggest that further efforts at extended biopsy strategies beyond 10 to 12 cores are not appropriate as an initial biopsy strategy. Copyright © 2006 by American Urological Association.