Self-management behaviors are important for control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, determining factors that promote effective self-management behaviors may be significant for improving the well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined relationships among self-efficacy, social support, social problem solving, and diabetes self-management behaviors. Further, this study evaluated whether social support and social problem solving were mediators of the relationship between self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors in those living with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design, data from a convenience sample of 152 rural people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus were examined. Findings indicated that self-efficacy was a strong predictor of diabetes self-management. The effect of social support on diabetes self-management differed among men and women in the sample. Social support and social problem solving were significantly associated with diabetes self-management in men. Neither social support nor social problem solving were mediators of the relationship between self-efficacy and diabetes self-management in this sample. These findings suggest that nurses need to consider implementing interventions to improve patients' self-efficacy and potentially influence diabetes self-management. © 2012 Springer Publishing Company.