The field of pharmacogenomics seeks to identify the impact of genetic variants on drug dosing, response, metabolism, and safety outcomes. The narrow therapeutic indices for anesthesia drugs, variability of patient responses to anesthesia, and the risks associated with surgery make anesthetics and the perioperative period prime targets for pharmacogenetic research. Anesthesia providers strive to optimize anesthesia delivery and patient outcomes and to specifically reduce anesthesia-related risks and negative outcomes. Despite pharmacogenomics emerging from the field of anesthesia, the most significant advances to date in the understanding and application of genetics to pharmacology have occurred outside of anesthesiology. This chapter provides an overview of genetic concepts fundamental to understanding the pharmacogenetics of anesthesia practice and presents the current state of the science with respect to the genetic influence on the response to volatile and intravenous anesthetic agents and opioid receptor agonists commonly used in anesthesia practice. In addition, the chapter delineates U.S. Food and Drug Administration labeling tenets for pharmacogenetics, discusses clinical implications of pharmacogenomics for family members, and highlights the potential for future paradigm shifts in pharmacogenomics of anesthesia practice.