PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current medical model for obesity management is BMI-centric because BMI is the predominant measure used to gauge disease severity, as well as indications for various treatment modalities. Recent advancements in therapy and understanding of the relationship between BMI and obesity-related complications call for a re-examination of this approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Advancements in treatment, including the recent approval of two new weight loss medications in the USA, have enabled development of new medical models for management of obesity. On the basis of accumulating data demonstrating the benefits of weight loss regarding multiple obesity-related complications (e.g., diabetes prevention, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease risk, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, sleep apnea), a complications-centric model is proposed that employs weight loss as a tool to treat and prevent obesity comorbidities. This model assures that the aggressiveness of therapy is commensurate with disease severity, and that therapy is directed at those obese patients who will benefit most from weight loss therapy. The treatment algorithm is comprehensive in addressing complications and quantitative when possible in the staging of risk or disease severity. SUMMARY: A complications-centric approach to obesity management identifies patients who will benefit most from weight loss, and optimizes patient outcomes, benefit/risk ratio, and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.