This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There was a competition effect for the word repetition task, but this effect was present only for the most familiar words on the gating task. Recognition for words from sparse neighborhoods predicted phonological awareness 1 year later, and children poorer at recognizing these words in Year 1 scored lower on word reading in Year 2. Spoken word recognition also accounted for unique variance in nonword repetition across the 1-year time span. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the effects of vocabulary growth on spoken word recognition, phonological awareness, and nonword repetition. © 2008 Cambridge University Press.