Recent studies in the treatment of head and neck cancer suggest that combined chemoradiation is superior to radiation alone with regard to local-regional control. Agents that have shown activity as radiosensitizers include platinum agents and taxanes. Docetaxel is a semisynthetic taxane that affects polymerized tubulin both to promote microtubule formation and to inhibit its disassembly. As a single agent, docetaxel shows significant antitumor activity in head and neck cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. Docetaxel also exhibits potent radiosensitizing capability. Because docetaxel is a phase-specific agent, frequent administration of docetaxel offers the potential for enhancement of radiosensitization. Current trials are exploring the optimal dose and schedule of administration of docetaxel with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer.