Hsp90 is a chaperone for over 100 'client proteins' in the cell, most of which are involved in signaling pathways. For example, Hsp90 maintains several nuclear hormone receptors, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), as agonist-receptive monomers in the cytoplasm. In the presence of agonist, Hsp90 dissociates and the receptors dimerize, enter the nucleus and ultimately activate transcription of the target genes. Increasing evidence suggests that Hsp90 also has a role in modifying the chromatin conformation of many genes. For example, Hsp90 has recently been shown to increase the activity of the histone H3 lysine-4 methyltransferase SMYD3, which activates the chromatin of target genes. Further evidence for chromatin-remodeling functions is that Hsp90 acts as a capacitor for morphological evolution by masking epigenetic variation. Release of the capacitor function of Hsp90, such as by environmental stress or by drugs that inhibit the ATP-binding activity of Hsp90, exposes previously hidden morphological phenotypes in the next generation and for several generations thereafter. The chromatin-modifying phenotypes of Hsp90 have striking similarities to the trans-generational effects of the ER agonist diethylstilbesterol (DES). Prenatal and perinatal exposure to DES increases the predisposition to uterine developmental abnormalities and cancer in the daughters and granddaughters of exposed pregnant mice. In this review, we propose that trans-generational epigenetic phenomena involving Hsp90 and DES are related and that chromatin-mediated WNT signaling modifications are required. This model suggests that inhibitors of Hsp90, WNT signaling and chromatin-remodeling enzymes might function as anticancer agents by interfering with epigenetic reprogramming and canalization in cancer stem cells. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.