A method has been devised to accurately measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) of digital x-ray systems up to and, for undersampled systems, beyond the pixel Nyquist frequency (fN). A phantom consisting of an array of parallel tungsten or similar wires is imaged, and discrete Fourier transforms of rows of pixel values are computed. Under suitable conditions of phantom orientation, wire diameter, wire spacing, and image magnification, the envelope of the modulus of the mean Fourier transform represents the system MTF. Experimental results extending beyond fN are presented for an undersampled prototype digital chest x-ray system and shown to be in reasonable agreement with predicted values. Employment of the method with other digital imaging modalities [i.e., computerized tomography (CT) scanners and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) units] is also discussed as well as error considerations and practical problems in implementing the method.