© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. This study evaluated 3 index-based dietary patterns - Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, HEI-2010, and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 - in relation to ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. The study was conducted among 415 ovarian cancer cases and 629 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited from the population-based African American Cancer Epidemiology Study. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between quartiles of dietary quality indices and ovarian cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders. We found that higher AHEI-2010 scores, but not HEI-2005 or HEI-2010 scores, were associated with lower risk of ovarian cancer (comparing the highest quartile (4th) vs. lowest (1st), odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 0.98; P for trend = 0.05). When stratified by menopausal status, no noteworthy associations were observed among premenopausal women. However, among postmenopausal women, greater adherence to HEI-2010 (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.92; P for trend = 0.03) and AHEI-2010 (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.78; P for trend = 0.01) were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. Our findings indicate that adherence to an overall healthy dietary pattern may reduce ovarian cancer risk in African-American women, and particularly among postmenopausal African-American women.