By means of a comprehensive renal function test based on the analysis of orthoiodohippurate kinetics carried out 223 times in 86 renal transplant patients, we have been able to separate clearly five clinical entities: normally functioning transplanted kidneys, acute tubular necrosis, cell mediated rejection, humoral (chronic) rejection, and postrenal obstruction. Accurate prediction of the fate of the rejecting kidney can be made while still subclinical as much as a week before manifestations by other techniques are evident. Data on 22 donors studied 44 times are also presented. The comprehensive test consists of measurements of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), sequential scintigraphy, calculations of excretory index (EI) (percent dose actually found in bladder and voided urine as a fraction of the percent dose expected at a given time after injection at the patient's specific ERPF), and residual urine volume. Formulas and regression equations for the calculation of ERPF, EI, residual urine, etc., are presented.