A case of renovascular hypertension is presented in which the [131I]hippuran renogram was initially normal, but became strikingly abnormal upon administration of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril. The patient presented with fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal arteries, which was shown by hippuran renography to be functionally significant on the right side. She became normotensive after angioplasty of the right renal artery. Hypertension recurred a year later, at which time the renogram was normal without captopril, but showed functionally significant left renal artery stenosis with captopril challenge. Both the conventional agent, [131I]hippuran, and an experimental new 99mTc-labeled hippuran analog, [99mTc]MAG3, were used. Angiography confirmed progression of disease on the left side, which was successfully treated by angioplasty. Functionally significant unilateral renal artery stenosis was thus demonstrated first on the right side and then, 1 yr later, on the left side, using hippuran and [99mTc]MAG3. Anatomic progression of disease was documented by angiography.