The Influence of Body Size and Composition on FITNESSGRAM® Test Performance and the Adjustment of FITNESSGRAM® Test Scores for Skinfold Thickness in Youth

Academic Article


  • This study was designed to (a) determine the influence of body composition on the performance of FITNESSGRAM® test items and (b) evaluate the impact of adjusting FITNESSGRAM® scores for the effect of body composition on percentile ranks and the achievement of criterion-referenced standards (CRS). Male and female children (N= 200; ages 10-12 years) were administered a battery of FITNESSGRAM® tests. Body composition measurements had significant moderate negative correlations with PACER, curl-up, and push-up scores (r = -. 30 to -.49). After the performance scores were adjusted for sum of skinfolds (SSF) by regression analysis for each of these tests, CRS classifications were altered in 4.5-22.7% of the participants. Adjusting the performance scores for SSF also resulted in differences of greater than 10 percentile ranks in 41-45% of the participants. The relationship between SSF and PACER, curl-up, and push-up scores appears to be sufficient to justify the use of adjusted scores for evaluating cardiorespiratory endurance and upper-body muscular strength and endurance independent of SSF. The use of adjusted scores may permit a more unbiased assessment of health-related fitness independent of body size and composition.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Lloyd LK; Bishop PA; Walker JL; Sharp KR; Richardson MT
  • Start Page

  • 205
  • End Page

  • 226
  • Volume

  • 7
  • Issue

  • 4