BACKGROUND: Outcomes after kidney transplantation for patients with amyloidosis-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have not been well characterized. METHODS: We performed a retrospective propensity score matched cohort study with Cox proportional hazards modeling using data from the United Network of Organ Sharing including patients transplanted from 1987 to 2015 (N = 310 629). RESULTS: Amyloidosis patients (N = 576) had higher rates of death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.95) and graft loss (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.19-1.87) compared with nonamyloidosis patients. The results were similar when the cohort was restricted to patients transplanted on or after 2001 (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.31-2.26 for death; HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.35-2.33 for graft loss). However, there was no significant difference in risk of death or graft loss when amyloidosis patients were compared with those with diabetes-associated ESRD (mortality: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84-1.17; allograft loss: HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84-1.20), or when compared with elderly patients (age, >65 years at the time of transplant) (mortality: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81-1.21; graft loss: HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.26). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with amyloidosis-associated ESRD deemed suitable for transplantation, patient and graft survivals are diminished compared to kidney transplant recipients overall, but are comparable to other high-risk subgroups.