Edible sea urchin fisheries are high-value commercial enterprises throughout the world. Aquaculture alternatives to the devastating effects of the direct harvest of natural sea urchin populations are vital to sustain wild fisheries that provide an exportable product for local fishermen and help the trade deficit in many nations. This chapter discusses the dual functions of nutrient storage and gametogenesis by sea urchin gonads and consequences for commercial aquaculture, and characteristics of high-quality, commercial-grade sea urchin roe harvested from wild populations. It then presents the environmental and nutritional factors essential for producing high-quality cultured roe with sensory parameters comparable to wild populations, quantifying consumer assessment of the culinary quality of cultured roe, and methods for further enhancing the commercial quality of sea urchin roe. The chapter also presents novel technologies based on the current understanding of the biology of sea urchin gametogenesis.