© 2015 The Authors. The data in this article includes the sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA gene from metagenome of Macondo oil (MC252)-treated and non-oil-treated sediment microcosms, collected from coastal Gulf of Mexico and Bayou La Batre, USA. Metacommunity DNA was PCR amplified with 341F and 907R oligonucleotide primers, targeting V3-V5 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Data were generated by using bacterial tag-encoded FLX-amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) methodology and then processed using bioinformatics tools such as QIIME. The data information is deposited to NCBI's BioProject and BioSample and raw sequence files are available via NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database.