A series of some new 4'-thio-L-xylofuranosyl nucleosides were prepared and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. A versatile sugar intermediate for direct coupling with the purine moiety is also synthesized by an efficient and high-yielding route. Proof of structure and configuration at all chiral centers of the nucleosides was obtained by proton NMR. All target compounds were evaluated in a series of human cancer cell lines in vitro. The details of the synthesis of the carbohydrate precursor 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-4-thio-L-xylofuranose (6) and corresponding purine nucleosides are presented in the manuscript.