Current nomenclature in the area of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids comprises a mixture of (1) common names that have gained official recognition, (2) guidelines that have been derived and officially recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)/International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB), and (3) evolving usage that is derived by individual scientists and laboratories and subjected to peer review through publication. A working group was commissioned in 1998 by IUBMB to review guidelines for nucleotide (including oligonucleotide) nomenclature. As those guidelines are developed and made available, they will be referenced in future updates of this appendix. The main purpose of this appendix is to provide pertinent references that will direct the reader to the relevant guidelines or evolving nomenclature as described in the literature. When additional suggestions or guidance are appropriate, those comments are included as well.