Galectin-3 and risk of ischaemic stroke: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke cohort.

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Galectin-3 is a biomarker of atherosclerotic and cardiovascular disease, and may be a useful marker for ischaemic stroke risk. METHODS: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort enrolled and examined 30 239 US participants between 2003 and 2007 (41% black, 59% white and 55% in the southeastern stroke belt). Baseline galectin-3 was measured in 526 subjects with incident ischaemic stroke over 5.4 years and in a cohort random sample (CRS) of 947 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of ischaemic stroke by quartiles of galectin-3. RESULTS: In the CRS, galectin-3 was significantly higher with older age, black race, female sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and kidney disease, and also in those who developed incident stroke. Participants with galectin-3 levels in the fourth versus first quartile had a 2.3-fold increased stroke risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6, 3.4] in an unadjusted model. An interaction with age was found (P = 0.06), and therefore age-stratified analyses were performed. Amongst those younger than age 64, baseline galectin-3 in the second-fourth quartiles was associated with increased stroke risk (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6, 5.5) compared to the first quartile in an age-, race- and sex-adjusted model. The HR was 2.0 (95% CI 1.0, 4.0) with multivariable adjustment. There was no association amongst older participants. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 was associated with incident ischaemic stroke in younger but not older individuals. Confirmation of this finding, and elucidation of its implications for stroke pathophysiology and prevention, is needed.
  • Published In


  • aging, biomarkers, cerebrovascular disease/stroke, epidemiology, galectin-3, inflammation, ischaemic stroke, risk factors, Age Factors, Aged, Biomarkers, Body Mass Index, Brain Ischemia, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Galectin 3, Humans, Hypertension, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Stroke
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Arora P; Agarwal Z; Venkatraman A; Callas P; Kissela BM; Jenny NS; Judd SE; Zakai NA; Cushman M
  • Start Page

  • 1464
  • End Page

  • 1470
  • Volume

  • 24
  • Issue

  • 12