© 2017 The authors regret that conflicts of interest were not included. Below are the Contributors, Role of Funding Source, Acknowledgments, Author Disclosures: Contributors Author MT wrote the paper and served on the Bipolar CHOICE study, contributing to data collection and scientific oversight for this study and this manuscript. Authors SLM, MET, NRH, ESF, RCS, CLB, VS, TD, TAK, JRC, WVB, and MGM served as study clinicians and/or site Principal Investigators, thereby contributing to data collection, scientific oversight for this study and this manuscript, and editing of this manuscript. Author LGS served as the Director of Clinical Operations for the National Coordinating Center of the CHOICE study and was involved in overseeing data collection and ensuring data integrity for the study and this manuscript. Author DJR conducted the statistical analyses and assisted with integrity of the study data. Authors AKG and REM assisted with editing and writing of the paper. Author AAN served as the overall Principal Investigator and directed the National Coordinating Center of the CHOICE study, overseeing data collection and data integrity, and assisted in the writing/editing of this paper. All authors approved the final article. Role of funding source AHRQ supplied funding for the design, execution, and analysis of the 11-site Bipolar CHOICE study. This funding included study assessments, biostatistics support, study staff salary support, and participant compensation. Author disclosures Dr. Tohen was a full time employee at Lilly (1997–2008). He has received honoraria from or consulted for Abbott, Alkermes, Allergan, AstraZeneca, Bristol Myers Squibb, Elan, Forest, Geodon Richter Plc, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, Lilly, Lundbeck, Merck, Minerva, Neurocrine, Otsuka, Pamlab, Pfizer, Roche, Shire, Sunovion, Teva, Wyeth and Wiley Publishing. His spouse was a full time employee at Lilly (1998–2013). Ms. Gold has no competing interests to report. Dr. Sylvia was a shareholder in Concordant Rater Systems and has served in the past year as a consultant for United Biosource Corporation, Clintara, Bracket, and Clinical Trials Network and Institute. Dr. Sylvia receives royalties from New Harbinger. She has received grant/research support from NIMH, PCORI, AFSP, and Takeda. Ms. Montana has no competing interests to report. Dr. McElroy is a consultant to or member of the scientific advisory boards of Allergen, Alkermes, Corcept, Ironshore, MedAvante, Naurex, NovoNordisk, Shire, Sunovian, and Teva. She is a principal or co-investigator on studies sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ), Azevan, Alkermes, AstraZeneca, Cephalon, Eli Lilly and Company, Marriott Foundation, National Institute of Mental Health, Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc., Shire, Sunovion, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd., and Transcept Pharmaceutical, Inc. She is also an inventor on United States Patent No. 6323,236 B2, Use of Sulfamate Derivatives for Treating Impulse Control Disorders, and along with the patient's assignee, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, has received payments from Johnson & Johnson, which has exclusive rights under the patent. Dr. Thase, as of April 15th, 2016, has served in an advisory role/consultant for the following: Alkermes, Allergan, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Cerecor, Inc., Eli Lilly & Co., Forest Laboratories, Gerson Lehrman Group, Fabre-Kramer Pharmaceuticals, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline, Guidepoint Global, H. Lundbeck A/S, MedAvante, Inc., Merck and Co. Inc. (formerly Schering Plough and Organon), Moksha8, Naurex, Inc., Neuronetics, Inc., Novartis, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceuticals (Johnson & Johnson; Janssen), Otsuka, Pamlab, L.L.C. (Nestle), Pfizer (formerly Wyeth Ayerst Pharmaceuticals), Shire US Inc., Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Trius Therapeutical, Inc., and Takeda. He has received grant support from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Alkermes, AssureRx, Avanir, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, National Institute of Mental Health, and Otsuka Pharmaceuticals. He has equity holdings in MedAvante, Inc. He has received royalties from the American Psychiatric Foundation, Guilford Publications, Herald House, and W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. His spouse is employed at Peloton Advantage, which does business with Pfizer. Mr. Rabideau has no competing interests to report. Dr. Nierenberg is a consultant for the Abbott Laboratories, Alkermes, American Psychiatric Association, Appliance Computing Inc. (Mindsite), Basliea, Brain Cells, Inc., Brandeis University, Bristol Myers Squibb, Clintara, Corcept, Dey Pharmaceuticals, Dainippon Sumitomo (now Sunovion), Eli Lilly and Company, EpiQ, L.P./Mylan Inc., Forest, Genaissance, Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Hoffman LaRoche, Infomedic, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Lundbeck, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Medavante, Merck, Methylation Sciences, Naurex, NeuroRx, Novartis, Otsuka, PamLabs, Parexel, Pfizer, PGx Health, Ridge Diagnostics Shire, Schering-Plough, Somerset, Sunovion, Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Targacept, and Teva; consulted through the MGH Clinical Trials Network and Institute (CTNI) for Astra Zeneca, Brain Cells, Inc, Dianippon Sumitomo/Sepracor, Johnson and Johnson, Labopharm, Merck, Methylation Science, Novartis, PGx Health, Shire, Schering-Plough, Targacept and Takeda/Lundbeck Pharmaceuticals. He receives grant/research support from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, AHRQ, Brain and Behavior Research Foundation, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cederroth, Cephalon, Cyberonics, Elan, Eli Lilly, Forest, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Lichtwer Pharma, Marriott Foundation, Mylan, NIMH, PamLabs, PCORI, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Shire, Stanley Foundation, Takeda, and Wyeth-Ayerst. Honoraria include Belvoir Publishing, University of Texas Southwestern Dallas, Brandeis University, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Hillside Hospital, American Drug Utilization Review, American Society for Clinical Psychopharmacology, Baystate Medical Center, Columbia University, CRICO, Dartmouth Medical School, Health New England, Harold Grinspoon Charitable Foundation, IMEDEX, Israel Society for Biological Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, MJ Consulting, New York State, Medscape, MBL Publishing, MGH Psychiatry Academy, National Association of Continuing Education, Physicians Postgraduate Press, SUNY Buffalo, University of Wisconsin, University of Pisa, University of Michigan, University of Miami, University of Wisconsin at Madison, World Congress of Brain Behavior and Emotion, APSARD, ISBD, SciMed, Slack Publishing and Wolters Klower Publishing ASCP, NCDEU, Rush Medical College, Yale University School of Medicine, NNDC, Nova Southeastern University, NAMI, Institute of Medicine, CME Institute, ISCTM. He was currently or formerly on the advisory boards of Appliance Computing, Inc., Brain Cells, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Genentech, Johnson and Johnson, Takeda/Lundbeck, Targacept, and InfoMedic. He owns stock options in Appliance Computing, Inc., Brain Cells, Inc, and Medavante; has copyrights to the Clinical Positive Affect Scale and the MGH Structured Clinical Interview for the Montgomery Asberg Depression Scale exclusively licensed to the MGH Clinical Trials Network and Institute (CTNI). Dr. Reilly-Harrington receives royalties from Oxford University Press, the American Psychological Association, and New Harbinger. She serves as a consultant for United Biosource Corporation and Clintara and was a shareholder in Concordant Rater Systems. Dr. Friedman receives royalties from Springer. He has served as an expert forensic consultant for Thomson Rhodes & Cowie P.C. and Berger and Zavesky Co. L.P.A. Dr. Friedman received grant support from NIMH, AHRQ, Novartis, St Jude Medical, Medtronics, Repligen, AstraZeneca, Roche, and Takeda and Neosync. Dr. Shelton has served as a consultant to Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Inc., Elan, Corp, Euthymics Bioscience, Cerecor Inc., Clintara LLC, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Medtronic, Inc., MSI Methylation Sciences, Naurex, Inc., Nestle’ Health Science - Pamlab, Inc., Otsuka Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Inc., Ridge Diagnostics, Shire PLC, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Shelton has received research grant support from Appian Labs, Elan, Corp, Euthymics Bioscience, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Naurex, Inc, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Otsuka Pharmaceuticals, Nestle’ Health Science - Pamlab, Inc., Repligen, Corp, Ridge Diagnostics, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Bowden currently has no activities or consultant relationships to disclose. Dr. Singh received research funding from Astra Zeneca and Novartis. He was on the Speaker Bureau for Merck and Sunovion. He consulted with Forum Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Deckersbach's research has been funded by NIH, NIMH, NARSAD, TSA, IOCDF, Tufts University, DBDAT, Cogito, Sunovion and Otsuka Pharmaceuticals. He has received honoraria, consultation fees and/or royalties from the MGH Psychiatry Academy, BrainCells Inc., Clintara, LLC., Systems Research and Applications Corporation, Boston University, the Catalan Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Research, the National Association of Social Workers Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Medical Society, Tufts University, NIDA, NIMH, Oxford University Press, Guilford Press, and Rutledge. He has also participated in research funded by DARPA, NIH, NIMH, NIA, AHRQ, PCORI, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, The Forest Research Institute, Shire Development Inc., Medtronic, Cyberonics, Northstar, and Takeda. Between May 14, 2010 to present, Dr. Ketter had the following financial interests/arrangements or affiliations that could be perceived as real or apparent conflicts of interest: grant/research support from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Cephalon Inc. (now Teva Pharmaceuticals), Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, Inc., and Sunovion Pharmaceuticals; consultant/advisory board fees from Allergan, Inc., Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Depotmed, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Genentech, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Merck & Co., Inc., ProPhase, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and Cephalon, Inc; lecture honoraria from Abbott Laboratories, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline, Otsuka Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Inc., and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; and royalties from American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. In addition, Dr. Ketter's spouse is an employee of and holds stock in Janssen Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Calabrese has received grant support from Abbott Laboratories; AstraZeneca; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; Cephalon, Inc. (now Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.); Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd.; GlaxoSmithKline; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Eli Lilly and Company; Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc.; Pfizer, Inc; H. Lundbeck A/S; Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. He has served as a consultant/advisory board member/speaker for Abbott Laboratories; Allergan; AstraZeneca; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; Cephalon, Inc. (now Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.); Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd.; GlaxoSmithKline; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; H. Lundbeck A/S,;Merck & Co., Inc.; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; Pfizer, Inc; Repligen Corporation; Servier; Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.; Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Dr. Bobo has received research support from the NIMH, NARSAD and Cephalon, Inc. In the past, he has received honoraria from Janssen Pharmaceutica and Pfizer, Inc. Dr. McInnis has received grants for research support from NIMH, the Heinz C Prechter Research Fund, and the Michigan Institute for Clinical Health Research (MICHR). He has received consulting income from Janssen Pharmaceuticals. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.