Suicide by self-immolation, or lighting oneself on fire, is the most common method of suicide used among women in rural Iran. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that may lead women to commit suicide by self-immolation is necessary for the development of empirically-supported prevention programs. Currently, no integrative approach to the risk factors for self-immolation among women in rural areas, or the interactions between them, is available. Based in ecology theory, we review the risk factors for suicide by self-immolation and present them in terms of ecological theory in an attempt to offer an integrative approach for prevention of self-immolation among women in rural Iran. We conclude by recommending a multifaceted approach to prevention of self-immolation.