BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic features of unintentional injuries among children in rural China are unknown.METHODS: Using a stratified sampling method, we conducted a retrospective study of injury reports over a year-long period. Structured oral questionnaires were administered to parents of 2551 children ages 0 to 14.RESULTS: The annual incidence of unintentional injuries was 15.6%, with boys (16.7%) having a slightly higher rate than girls (14.5%; p greater than .05). The four leading causes of injury for both genders were falls (5.1% annual incidence), burns (2.9%), animal-related injuries (1.7%), and traffic injuries (1.6%).CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries have substantial negative effects on children and their families. In rural PuCheng, China, the incidence of unintentional injury among children is extremely high compared to other regions of the world. The types of injuries incurred are somewhat different from those reported in other geographic areas. Injury prevention programs targeting the issues specific to this region, and similar rural regions of China, are needed.