OBJECTIVE: Study the contextual antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China. METHODS: A total of 101 caregivers from rural Anhui Province, China, whose children had suffered dog-bite injuries in the past year, participated in a structured interview about the circumstances, antecedents and consequences of their child's injury. RESULTS: Contextual circumstances identified frequently included outside-home environment and presence of peers but not adult supervisors. Frequent antecedents were dogs' initiation of the encounter, children walking to/from school, and dogs unleashed. Consequences to children identified frequently were rabies vaccines, restricted activity, and fear of dogs. Developmental trends emerged, with bite circumstances differing by children's ages. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer data on common antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China, a necessary prerequisite for development of empirically supported prevention programs in a vulnerable population.