Objective Study the contextual antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China. Methods A total of 101 caregivers from rural Anhui Province, China, whose children had suffered dog-bite injuries in the past year, participated in a structured interview about the circumstances, antecedents and consequences of their child's injury. Results Contextual circumstances identified frequently included outside-home environment and presence of peers but not adult supervisors. Frequent antecedents were dogs' initiation of the encounter, children walking to/from school, and dogs unleashed. Consequences to children identified frequently were rabies vaccines, restricted activity, and fear of dogs. Developmental trends emerged, with bite circumstances differing by children's ages. Conclusions These results offer data on common antecedents and consequences of pediatric dog bites in rural China, a necessary prerequisite for development of empirically supported prevention programs in a vulnerable population. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.