Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between individual and familial characteristics of HIV-infected mothers and their psychological health as it relates to parenting as well as their parenting beliefs/abilities. Method: A descriptive correlational design was used. Seventeen HIV-infected mothers and their infants were recruited from a university clinic in Alabama. Assessments were gathered at the infant's pediatric clinic appointments (approximately 6 weeks after delivery) and included a demographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Maternal Confidence Questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, and the Questionnaire About Physical Contact. Results: Dysfunctional parent-child interactions significantly correlated with maternal confidence, parent stress, and overall feeling about physical contact. Difficult child temperament correlated with overall and current feelings of physical contact and parent stress. Significant correlations were found between parent distress, parent stress, and maternal depression. Discussion: Beyond the need to assist HIV-infected mothers with stress and depression, an intervention is needed to facilitate optimal parent-child interactions and improve both child psychosocial and cognitive outcomes. © 2012.