The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic, bioactive structure critical to organ development, structure and function. Excessive remodeling of the ECM is a hallmark of a variety of inflammatory conditions including vascular disease. Endothelin-1 (ET1) synthesis is understood to promote cardiovascular diseases including acute cardiac transplant rejection; however, the contribution of ECM-derived chemokines (matrikines) to vascular inflammation remains poorly understood. Herein we report that the matrikine acetylated Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) stimulates vascular inflammation through activation of endothelial CXC Chemokine Receptor 2 (CXCR2) and production of endothelin-1 both in vitro and in vivo. As a proof of hypothesis, we demonstrate that coronary PGP levels associate with both circulating endothelin-1 and acute rejection in cardiac transplant patients (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 86%). These findings establish PGP as a novel mediator in cardiovascular disease, and implicate bioactive matrix fragments as underappreciated agents potentially active in numerous conditions propagated by progressive vascular inflammation.