Ames dwarf mice live considerably longer than normal animals, exhibit apparently normal cognitive functions, and maintain them into advanced age. Neurogenesis occurs throughout adult life span in the dentate gyrus of mammalian hippocampus and has been suggested to play an important role in cognitive function. We now report that the total number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in this brain region in aged Ames dwarf mice was not different from that in aged normal mice, whereas the fraction of newly generated neurons was significantly increased by monitoring BrdU labeling and cell marker expression. Evidence of activation of antiapoptosis signal transduction cascade was also found in the hippocampus of aged dwarf mice. Together with previous findings, the results may suggest that an increase in hippocampal insulin-like growth factor-I protein expression and subsequent activation of antiapoptotic signaling might contribute to survival of newly born neurons and subsequently to the delay of cognitive loss during aging in these long-lived dwarf mice. Copyright 2007 by The Gerontological Society of America.