Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is the key regulator for osteoclast formation and function. During osteoclastogenesis, RANKL-stimulated signals differentially modulate expression of a large number of proteins. Using proteomics approaches, we identified that brain-type cytoplasmic creatine kinase (Ckb) was greatly induced in mature osteoclasts. Ckb has been shown to contribute to osteoclast function. However, the mechanisms of Ckb regulation and the contribution of other isoforms of creatine kinase during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis are unknown. We found that Ckb was the predominant isoform of creatine kinase during osteoclastogenesis. Real-time PCR confirmed that RANKL induced ckb mRNA expression by over 40-fold in primary mouse bone marrow macrophages and Raw 264.7 cells. The RANKL-responsive region was identified within the -0.4- to -0.2-kb 5′-flanking region of the ckb gene. Affinity binding purification followed by mass spectrometry analysis revealed that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) bound to the -0.4/-0.2-kb fragment that negatively regulated expression of ckb in response to RANKL stimulation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with PARP-1-specific antibody located the binding site of PARP-1 to the TTCCCA consensus sequence. The expression of PARP-1 was reduced during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, concurrently with increased expression of Ckb. Consistently, knockdown of PARP-1 by lentivirus-delivered shRNA enhanced ckb mRNA expression. The activity of PARP-1 was determined to be required for its inhibitory effect on the ckb expression. In summary, we have demonstrated that PARP-1 is a negative regulator of the ckb expression. Down-regulation of PARP-1 is responsible for the up-regulation of ckb during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.