We conducted a prospective, randomized study to determine the efficacy of conjugated estrogen in reducing blood product transfusion during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Patients undergoing OLT were included in the study. Only those having a reaction time of more than 30 mm or 15 min (19-28 mm) on computed thromboelastography (CTEG) at the beginning of surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomized to receive either conjugated estrogen (CE) or placebo. Every patient received a first dose of CE (100 mg IV) (20 mL) or placebo (20 mL of isotonic sodium chloride solution) at the beginning of the procedure and a second dose of CE (100 mg IV) or 20 mL of placebo (20 mL of isotonic sodium chloride solution) just after reperfusion of the new graft. The two groups were similar in age, weight, requirement for veno-veno bypass, time on veno-veno bypass, CTEG measurement, and preoperative hemoglobin and platelet values. Blood products were given in relation to hematocrit and coagulation (CTEG) variables, which were measured every hour during the surgery. The amount of transfused blood products did not differ in terms of units of cryoprecipitate, but the intraoperative requirements for red blood cells (6 ± 3 vs 9 ± 6 U; P = 0.05), platelets (12 ± 8 U vs 18 ± 10 U; P = 0.05) and fresh-frozen plasma (3 ± 3 U vs 6 ± 4 U; P = 0.001) was significantly less in the estrogen group than in the control group. We conclude that CE is associated with a significant decrease in use of fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, and red blood cells during OLT. Implications: In this study, we prospectively investigated whether IV conjugated estrogen could decrease blood product transfusion during orthotopic liver transplantation. Conjugated estrogen-treated patients received less fresh-frozen plasma, red blood cells, and platelets. In this population of patients, conjugated estrogen can be a useful addition in coagulation management during orthotopic liver transplantation.