Quality control of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is vital in preventing mutagenesis. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a repair process predominant in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, rejoins DSBs either accurately or with errors, but the mechanisms controlling its fidelity are poorly understood. Here we show that BRCA1, a tumor suppressor, enhances the fidelity of NHEJ-mediated DSB repair and prevents mutagenic deletional end-joining through interaction with canonical NHEJ machinery during G 1. BRCA1 binds and stabilizes Ku80 at DSBs through its N-terminal region, promotes precise DSB rejoining, and increases cellular resistance to radiation-induced DNA damage in a G1 phase-specific manner. These results suggest that BRCA1, as a central player in genome integrity maintenance, ensures high fidelity repair of DSBs by not only promoting homologous recombination repair in G2/M phase but also facilitating fidelity of Ku80-dependent NHEJ repair, thus preventing deletional end-joining of chromosomal DSBs during G1. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.