Alport’s syndrome is the most frequent disorder with familial nephritis and deafness, but other types of nephropathy have been occasionally associated with hereditary hearing loss. The familial occurrence of IgA nephropathy has been well documented. We report a family with hereditary, bilateral, sensorineural deafness spanning four generations. Three of five members with deafness had microscopic hematuria. Renal histology of the two deaf members undergoing biopsy showed mesangial glomerulonephritis with mesangiallgA deposits, without ultrastructural abnormalities of the glomerular basement membranes. Familial nephritis with deafness should not be equated with the diagnosis of Alport’s syndrome. © 1992, National Kidney Foundation. All rights reserved.. All rights reserved.