We examine current understanding of the minority disadvantage in the clinical management of epilepsy. We performed an online literature search using several keywords (race, ethnicity, epilepsy, treatment, and quality of life) and identified additional literature through cross-referencing/manual search. The search produced 58 items published between 1977 and 2005. Of 49 original research studies, 38 were quantitative, 7 were qualitative, and 4 used mixed methods. Three or more articles were published in Epilepsia, Epilepsy &Behavior, Epilepsy Research, Neurology, and Seizure. Research concerning racial/ethnic differences in epilepsy treatment is scarce and limited by methodology, but suggests underutilization of state-of-the-art therapies by minorities. Racial/ethnic minorities also appear to have limited knowledge about epilepsy and its treatment, experience barriers to care, lack social support, and seek alternative therapies for epilepsy. We propose a framework to identify the array of disparities, points of intervention, and interventions.