This was a cross-sectional study designed to investigate the relationship between tobacco use and oral health of inmates. Inmates (n = 1,275) randomly selected from the state prison population were given a complete dental exam and were asked about their tobacco use. This study revealed a high prevalence of smoking, with 69% of the sample reporting current smoking. Inmates who smoked or smoked along with using other tobacco products had the worst dental outcomes. The high rate of tobacco use and oral disease is consistent with previous findings among incarcerated samples and suggests the need for smoking cessation programs. © 2006, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.