The number of drug or alcohol dependent inmates has increased dramatically in recent years. About half of all inmates meet DSM-IV criteria for dependence at the time of their arrest and require substance use treatment or detoxification. Few inmates receive treatment while in prison, increasing the likelihood that they will continue to use substances in prison and after release. While pharmacotherapy interventions have been shown to be effective with substance users in the community, few studies have investigated these treatments with a prison population. Further research is needed to better understand the feasibility and efficacy of providing pharmacotherapies for substance dependence disorders within this population. Copyright © 2005 Taylor & Francis Inc.