While studies have explored the prevalence and correlates for hepatitis C (HCV) infection in substance-using and incarcerated populations these studies have not examined the attributes of criminal histories for those with HCV infection. This study examines the HCV infection rate as it relates to criminal risk factors using baseline data from a randomized trial of re-entering offenders and examines how these risk factors vary by gender. The HCV-positive population had a longer amount of time in confinement (105 vs. 61 months) than those who tested negative. HCV positive men were more likely to currently be receiving drug treatment than women. Criminal risk was positively associated with HCV infection while controlling for major risk factors (OR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.46), suggesting that the relationship was not spurious. While criminologists tend to examine risk relative to public safety threats, it appears that the public health needs equally require attention. Policy issues are examined regarding how services can be delivered to treat those with HCV infections within the correctional system and address criminal risk factors. © 2008 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.