Female inmates (N=655) of a large prison facility in the southeastern United States were surveyed about their substance use, social histories, and demographics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injection drug use. The sample was primarily young (M=34 ± 9 years), and evenly split on race (45.3% White and 44.6 Black). Four predictors were identified as significant risk factors for injection drug use: being White, having a prior history of substance user treatment, having a prior drug-related charge, and being a problem drinker. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.