We assessed the contraceptive needs of women in jails and their sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and risk to determine effective contraceptive methods for this population. A survey of demographics, sexual health, contraceptive use, and preferred method of contraception was completed by participants recruited at jails in a medium-sized metropolitan area. Results from 188 women indicated high rates of STDs, inconsistent contraceptive use, and use of unreliable and user-dependent contraception methods. Intended contraceptive use following release varied depending on women's ability to bear children. Women planning to use condoms after release were more likely to have had an STD and more sexual partners than were women not planning to use condoms. Racial differences were found for participants' sexual health and contraception histories. These women were at high risk for STDs and appeared to need education about contraception methods. Therefore, they might benefit from education on safe sex practices provided prior to release. © 2010 by SOPHE.