Coding of facial expressions of pain in the laboratory mouse

Academic Article


  • Facial expression is widely used as a measure of pain in infants; whether nonhuman animals display such pain expressions has never been systematically assessed. We developed the mouse grimace scale (MGS), a standardized behavioral coding system with high accuracy and reliability; assays involving noxious stimuli of moderate duration are accompanied by facial expressions of pain. This measure of spontaneously emitted pain may provide insight into the subjective pain experience of mice. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Nature methods  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Langford DJ; Bailey AL; Chanda ML; Clarke SE; Drummond TE; Echols S; Glick S; Ingrao J; Klassen-Ross T; Lacroix-Fralish ML
  • Start Page

  • 447
  • End Page

  • 449
  • Volume

  • 7
  • Issue

  • 6