Objective: Thousands of American children are injured or killed each year as pedestrians, but behavioral factors in pedestrian injury etiology remain poorly understood. We examined the roles of children's individual differences (age, gender, and inhibitory control) and parental supervision in children's pedestrian behaviors. Methods: Using the pretend road method, a sample of 85 children and 26 adults crossed a pretend crosswalk set adjacent to a real road. Safety of crossing the pretend road was determined based on actual traffic on the real road. Adults also crossed the real road. Results: Adults' behavior on the real road paralleled that on the pretend road, supporting validity of the method. On the pretend road, younger children, boys, and children with less behavioral control engaged in riskier pedestrian behaviors. Children with less behavioral control responded more noticeably to increases in parental supervision. Conclusion: Results are discussed in relation to children's development and injury prevention. © The Author 2007. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.