OBJECTIVES: Previous work suggests that maternal parenting and supervision reduces risk for children's unintentional injuries, but very little research has examined the role of fathers in children's unintentional injury risk. The role of fathers in protecting children from unintentional injury was considered. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal design predicted injury risk in 181 toddlers from the ages of 6 to 36 months. Predictor variables included child gender and temperament, individual difference factors of the mother and father, and parenting factors of the mother and father. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression models suggested that fathers' report of gains to the family from their employment was the strongest predictor of risk of children's unintentional injury. Several other paternal and maternal factors were also modestly related to injury risk. CONCLUSIONS: Data indicate the need to consider the role of fathers in protecting children from unintentional injuries.