The objective of this study was to investigate preexisting psychiatric disorders in self-immolation patients. In a case-control study, 30 consecutive cases of deliberate self-inflicted burns, admitted to the regional burn center, were compared with 30 controls. Mental disorders were assessed via detailed clinical interview. Descriptive data revealed that 67% of self-immolation patients had adjustment disorder (all female), 10% drug and alcohol abuse/dependence (all male), 7% dysthymia, 3% major depression, 3% anorexia nervosa, 3% primary insomnia, 7% borderline personality disorder (50% male), 7% depressive personality disorder (100% female), and 3% antisocial personality disorder. In bivariate comparisons, adjustment disorders emerged as related to risk of self-immolation (odds ratio = 13.00). This study suggests that adjustment disorder is a risk factor for self-immolation. As a result, it has been suggested that increasing education about problem-solving approaches, and coping skills for females and at-risk groups are appropriate prevention programs and strategies in Iranian communities.