Previous research suggests both high temperamental impulsivity and low temperamental inhibitory control contribute to children's risk for unintentional injury, but attempts to distinguish the relative contributions of the two constructs are lacking. A multi-method approach was used to assess temperamental impulsivity and inhibitory control and identify links between temperament and unintentional injury history. Parent-report, self-report, and behavioral measures of temperament were collected from a sample of 57 six-year-olds. Parents reported children's injury history. The strongest predictor of injury was parent-reported effortful control. Implications for both temperament theory and injury prevention are discussed. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.