Although studies have demonstrated that trauma markedly alters the bone marrow immune responses, sex and age are crucial determinants under such conditions and have not been extensively examined. To study this, 21- to 27-day-old (premature), 6- to 8-wk-old (mature), and 20- to 24-mo-old (aged) male and female (proestrus) C3H/HeN mice were sham operated or subjected to trauma (i.e., midline laparotomy) and hemorrhagic shock (30 ± 5 mmHg for 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. Twenty-four hours after resuscitation, bone marrow cells were harvested. Trauma-hemorrhage induced an increased number of the early pluripotent stem cell-associated bone marrow cell subsets (Sca1+CD34-CD117+/-lin+/-) in young mice. The CD117+ proportion of these cell subsets increased in mature proestrus females, but not in males. Aged males displayed significant lower numbers of Sca1+CD34-CD117+/-lin+/- cells compared with young male mice. Trauma-hemorrhage also increased development of granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CD11b +Gr-1+). Proliferative responses to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor were maintained in mature and aged proestrus females, but decreased in young mice and mature males. Augmented differentiation into monocyte/macrophage lineage in mature and aged proestrus females was observed and associated with the maintained release of TNF-α and IL-6. Conversely, increased IL-10 and PGE2 production was observed in the male trauma-hemorrhage groups. Thus, sex- and age-specific effects in bone marrow differentiation and immune responses after trauma-hemorrhage occur, which are likely to contribute to the sex- and age-related differences in the systemic immune responses under such conditions. Copyright © 2007 the American Physiological Society.