Several studies indicate that immune responses are markedly depressed early after onset of hemorrhage. Decreased organ blood flow has been implicated in the pathophysiology of altered immune responses after trauma- hemorrhage. In this regard, administration of L-arginine has been shown to restore depressed intestinal and hepatic blood flow after trauma-hemorrhage, probably due to provision of substrate for constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS). It remains unknown, however, whether administration of L-arginine also ameliorates depressed splenic blood flow and whether this agent has any salutary effects on depressed splenocyte functions after trauma-hemorrhage. Male rats underwent sham operation or laparotomy and were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of maximum shed blood volume (MBV) was returned as Ringer lactate (RL). Hemorrhaged rats were then resuscitated with RL (4 times MBV over 1 h). During resuscitation, rats received 300 mg/kg L-arginine or saline (vehicle) intravenously; 4 h later, splenic blood flow, splenocyte proliferation, and splenocyte interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-3 were determined. Administration of L-arginine improved depressed splenic blood flow and restored depressed splenocyte functions after trauma-hemorrhage. Therefore, provision of L-arginine during resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage should be considered a novel and safe approach for improving splenic organ blood flow and depressed splenocyte functions under such conditions.