Tyrosine kinases of the Janus kinase (Jak) family transduce signals from the type I and type II cytokine receptors. Jak3 is unique in this family because its expression must be induced and is predominantly limited to cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Deficient expression of Jak3 interferes with normal development and function of T, B, and NK cells. Using irradiated Jak3-deficient (Jak3-/-) mice reconstituted with normal bone marrow (Jak3-/- chimeric mice), we have investigated possible actions of Jak3 outside of the hematopoietic system. We show that efficient recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airways of OVA-sensitized mice challenged with aerosolized OVA requires the expression of Jak3 in radioresistant nonhematopoietic cells. Failure to develop eosinophil-predominant airway inflammation in Jak3-/- chimeric mice is not due to failure of T cell sensitization, because Jak3-/- chimeric mice showed delayed-type hypersensitivity responses indistinguishable from wild-type chimeric mice. Jak3-/- chimeric mice, however, express less endothelial-associated VCAM-1 after airway Ag challenge. Given the key role of VCAM-1 in recruitment of Th2 cells and eosinophils, our data suggest that Jak3 in airway-associated endothelial cells is required for the expression of eosinophilic airway inflammation. This requirement for nonhematopoietic expression of Jak3 represents the first demonstration of a physiological function of Jak3 outside of the lymphoid lineages.