Specific occupant and collision characteristics are associated with motor vehicle collision-related blunt cerebrovascular artery injury.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • BACKGROUND: Blunt cerebrovascular artery injury (BCI) remains difficult to diagnose but is recognized with increasing frequency after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). Failure to detect this injury in a timely fashion can be devastating. Criteria that can be used to heighten the suspicion of this injury have been suggested; however, more encompassing screening has been recommended. To address this need, we sought to describe occupant, vehicle, and collision characteristics among MVC occupants who sustained a BCI. METHODS: All cases of BCI identified in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System, a national probability sample of passenger vehicles involved in police-reported tow-away MVCs, between 1993 and 2001 were selected. Information on occupant (e.g., demographics, seating position, and restraint use), collision (e.g., collision type and severity), and vehicle characteristics were obtained and summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Nine-hundred forty individuals with BCI were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System data files. Over half were belted (57.4%) and 82.3% had airbag deployment; 16.2% were partially or completely ejected from the vehicle. Head and thoracic injuries were common (44.4% and 40.8%, respectively); 27.8% sustained a cervical spine fracture and 21.0% sustained a soft-tissue injury to the neck. The mean Injury Severity Score was 33.6. The case fatality rate was 44.5%. The majority of BCI occupants were drivers (76.0%). Among belted occupants, the lap/shoulder was the most commonly attributed as the injury source (61.4%). Among unbelted occupants, frequent injury sources included air bags (15.0%), windshield (13.7%), and other interior objects. With respect to collision characteristics, the average change in velocity (Delta V) was 43.3 km/h. The majority of collisions were frontal (76.2%). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that BCI is both a rare and lethal injury typified by specific occupant and collision characteristics. These characteristics provide insight as to the cause of this injury that may aid in the evaluation and management of the blunt trauma patient at risk for BCI.
  • Published In

  • Journal of Trauma  Journal
  • Keywords

  • Accidents, Traffic, Adult, Cerebral Arteries, Female, Humans, Injury Severity Score, Male, Middle Aged, Wounds, Nonpenetrating
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Davis RP; McGwin G; Melton SM; Reiff DA; Whitley D; Rue LW
  • Start Page

  • 64
  • End Page

  • 67
  • Volume

  • 56
  • Issue

  • 1