Superconformal electrodeposition of copper in 500-90 nm features

Academic Article


  • Superconformal electrodeposition of copper in 500 nm deep trenches ranging from 500 to 90 nm in width has been demonstrated using an acid cupric sulfate electrolyte containing chloride (Cl), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (MPSA). In contrast, similar experiments using either an additive-free electrolyte, or an electrolyte containing the binary combinations Cl-PEG, Cl-MPSA, or simply benzotriazole (BTAH), resulted in the formation of a continuous void within the center of the trench. Void formation in the latter electrolytes is shown to be reduced through the geometrical leveling effect associated with conformal deposition in trenches or vias with sloping sidewalls. The slanted sidewalls also counterbalance the influence of the differential cupric ion concentration that develops within the trenches. Examination of the i-E deposition characteristics of the electrolytes reveals a hysteretic response associated with the Cl-PEG-MPSA electrolyte that can be usefully employed to monitor and explore additive efficacy and consumption. Likewise, resistivity measurements performed on corresponding blanket films can be used to quantify the extent of additive incorporation and its influence on microstructural evolution. The films deposited from the Cl-PEG-MPSA electrolyte exhibit spontaneous recrystallization at room temperature that results in a 23% drop in resistivity within a few hours of deposition.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Moffat TP; Bonevich JE; Huber WH; Stanishevsky A; Kelly DR; Stafford GR; Josell D
  • Start Page

  • 4524
  • End Page

  • 4535
  • Volume

  • 147
  • Issue

  • 12