© 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc. Objective: Approximately 15% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer develop local recurrence, which is heralded by a rise in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Early detection and treatment of recurrence improves the outcome of salvage treatment. We investigated the ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion-guided biopsy (FGB) combined with "cognitive biopsy" to confirm local recurrence of prostate cancer after RP. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study conducted between January 2010 and December 2014, patients with rising PSA levels after RP who had no known evidence of distant metastases underwent mpMRI including T2-weighted (T2W) imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3 Tesla, and subsequent MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy with cognitive assistance. The detection rate of locally recurrent disease was determined. Results: A total of 10 patients (mean age = 67. y, mean PSA level = 3.44. ng/ml) met the inclusion criteria. Of the 10 patients, all had positive findings suspicious for local recurrence on mpMRI per entrance criterion. The most important features on mpMRI were early enhancement on DCE MR images and hypointensity on T2W images. The average lesion diameter on mpMRI was 1.12. cm (range: 0.40-2.20. cm). All suspicious lesions (16/16, 100%) were positive on T2W MR images, 14 (89%) showed positive features on apparent diffusion coefficient maps of diffusion-weighted images, and 16 (100%) were positive on DCE MR images. MRI-TRUS FGBs were positive in 10/16 lesions (62.5%) and 8/10 (80%) patients. Conclusion: MRI-TRUS FGB with cognitive assistance is able to detect and diagnose locally recurrent lesions after RP, even at low PSA levels. This may facilitate early detection of recurrent disease and improve salvage treatment outcomes.